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The first Romanian manuscripts

The present paper contains unprecedented information about the history of the first Romanian manuscripts, commonly referred as Afurisania lui Doja (anathema thrown out by Gheorghe Doja over the Kingdom of Hungary).

The document was drafted on the 8th of November, 7022 according to the Julian calendar (Byzantine calendar) and 1513 AD (the Gregorian calendar), and it is the oldest manuscript written in the Romanian language preserved to date. We are not aware of any publications made on this manuscript.

The text on the paper contains 16 complete and 2 half lines. The manuscript was written on paper without any traces of verjeres and pontisoares . The paper size is 322 x 322 mm (height/width). The document is part of the Birta archive – years 1347-1752 (the Romanian Foundation of Medieval Manuscripts), currently evaluated and valorized, in the sense of transcribing, transliterating and translating into Romanian (from Cyrillic into Latin script).

With few exceptions, all old texts contained in the work were written with Romanian Slavonic Cyrillic Characters.

The transcription of the document as well as the rest of the manuscripts contained in this paper proved to be very demanding, but of great informative value regarding the events of the Romanian Middle Ages, based on the quirky testimonies of the eyewitnesses, which directly reproduced the excited emotions in that period.

The manuscript describes facts that have taken place in a period marked by major social, political and military events produced or influenced by the actions of the two great empires of the epoch – Hungarian and Ottoman.

These manuscripts bring to light novel documents about native manuscript literature, representing the first written testimonies of the Romanians have been preserved to this day.

Ivan Birta, First Romanian Manuscript (November 8 ,1513)

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Chemo-mechanical imprimography.

Ways to recover lost writings Imagery – generally characterized as a form of pareidolia, offered one more reason why we applied different techniques to recover lost writing. In our case this has nothing to do with false perception of imagery, recently theorized as the ability or capacity for human mind’s to patterns of perception (otherwise considered as accidental phenomena) through hypersensitivity, because our case are chemo-mechanical proven and practically demonstrated. Specifically, we analyzed some chemo-mechanical imprimographyc cases who copied or impressed letters or signs from the original manuscript on surrogate paper.

The process takes dozens, even hundreds of years, and it depends on several factors (independent of our will and power to influence): ambient humidity that must be appropriate for achieving this purpose, constant temperature and last but not least a constant pressure on the manuscript.

When shooting it is important to increase the photo resolution, in order to transform low quality photos by decreasing of pixelation, because higher resolution means more image detail, to recover on that way invisible signs or letters.

Resolution quantifies how close lines can be to each other and still be visibly. Resolution units shall be tied to physical sizes – lines per mm -, to the overall size of a picture, resp. to angular subtense. After obtaining a suitable resolution, the image must be digitally filtered, applying different color spectra, until it is properly visualized.

Imprimography is done in three ways:

1. In original format (by penetration in surrogate paper);
2. In the mirror view (reverse look – letters appear opposite, by copying on the paper that was placed over the original);
3. In one and in other way.

Once the digital filtering process has finished, the image needs to be converted to the original view for evaluation (establishing the type and the language of writing, delimiting the words from the superscript or subscript and placing them in common writing rows – it continues with transcription, transliteration and translation into modern language and drawing conclusions).

By specific procedures, the analyzed paper can be subjected to chemical baths (preliminary tests are performed on smaller portions of paper, to check if the paper supports this treatment). The reconstruction of the missing writing will be done by linguistic methods (implanting letters and defective signs), historical (by completing the names partially saved through the scientific expertise of the researcher), the use of adjacent reference texts or other scientific methods.
Partially, the reconstitution of the lost writing can be accomplished complementarily by the multispectral analysis methods, evaluated by the independent component analysis.
Due to the high resolution of the sensor – 50 megapixels – and the number of recordings, 19 gigabytes per page (digit) would be stored. In addition, there are typically 1-2 gigabytes of results (images in TIF format).
The deciphering of the lost texts, however, is accomplished through the scholarly staff many years in the ancient texts, the methods outlined above being an absolutely indispensable ingredient.
The veracity and accuracy of these scientific advances has been proven by the camparation with the original texts that were later discovered.

Each lost text is unique, and recovery and decipherment methods are, in turn, unique and inimitable, requiring innovative applications, its practical applications being undoubtedly proven.

The present paper contains unprecedented information about the history of the first Romanian manuscripts, commonly referred as Afurisania lui Doja (anathema thrown out by Gheorghe Doja over the Kingdom of Hungary).

The document was drafted on the 8th of November, 7022 according to the Julian calendar (Byzantine calendar) and 1513 AD (the Gregorian calendar), and it is the oldest manuscript written in the Romanian language preserved to date. We are not aware of any publications made on this manuscript.

The text on the paper contains 16 complete and 2 half lines. The manuscript was written on paper without any traces of verjeres and pontisoares . The paper size is 322 x 322 mm (height/width).

The document is part of the Birta archive – years 1347-1752 (the Romanian Foundation of Medieval Manuscripts), currently evaluated and valorized, in the sense of transcribing, transliterating and translating into Romanian (from Cyrillic into Latin script). With few exceptions, all old texts contained in the work were written with Romanian Slavonic Cyrillic Characters.

The transcription of the document as well as the rest of the manuscripts contained in this paper proved to be very demanding, but of great informative value regarding the events of the Romanian Middle Ages, based on the quirky testimonies of the eyewitnesses, which directly reproduced the excited emotions in that period.

The manuscript describes facts that have taken place in a period marked by major social, political and military events produced or influenced by the actions of the two great empires of the epoch – Hungarian and Ottoman.
These manuscripts bring to light novel documents about native manuscript literature, representing the first written testimonies of the Romanians have been preserved to this day.

As a novelty in the field, the work also contains twenty samples of the hidden writing, relating to the period 1010-1738, writings stored on paper or envelopes in which the original manuscripts were packed (by the chemo-mechanically, called by Author Imprimography).

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  1. http://gracedentalclinic.in Reply

    Im obliged for the article. Fantastic.

  2. Khloee Reply

    Thank you for this post. Its very inspiring.

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